2017年杭州师范大学243二外英语考研真题
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杭州师范大学2017年招收攻读硕士研究生入学考试题

考试科目代码: 243

考试科目名称: 二外英语
说明:考生答题时一律写在答题纸上,否则漏批责任自负。
Part I Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning)(2×10=20 points)

Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on the Answer Sheet.

For questions 1 - 7, mark

Y (for YES)if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;

N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;

NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.

 

For questions 8 - 10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

Is Your Life Worth 30 Minutes a Day?

 

 Don’t be afraid of the E word — it could mean your survival. People who aren’t engaging in regular exercise can reap significant health benefits if they accumulate 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most days of the week.

What can help prevent stroke (中风), heart disease and some cancer? What can lift depression,ease arthritis (关节炎) pain and increase both the length and quality of life — to name just a few of its benefits?

“If packed into a pill,” sums up Dr. Robert Butler, former director of the National Institute on Aging, “it would be the single most widely prescribed (写处方) and beneficial medicine in the nation. “ Best of all, it is free and available to everyone.”

Exercise Can Help People Stay Healthy

Give up? The answer is the E word: exercise. But you don’t have to change into gym shorts or, heaven forbid, sweat for an hour. Instead, the U.S. Surgeon General’s report Physical Activity and Health offers this simple exercise prescription: people who aren’t engaging in regular exercise can reap significant health benefits if they accumulate 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most days of the week.

Americans Expend Much Less Energy and Time on Exercise

Americans today expend much less energy than did previous generations, perhaps as much as a few hundred calories per day less. All the “advances” that make our lives easier — like e-commerce (电子商务) , and automatic doors — contribute to the current epidemic (流行病) of obesity (肥胖) and related disease.

Experts say that if you expend just ten extra calories a day by being more active, over a year you can lose a pound — mostly fat. And if you burn 150 extra calories a day — the equivalent of a 30-minutes’ walk — in a year that’s ten pounds. (If you also eat 150 calories less — that’s about half a candy bar — you could lose an additional ten pounds.)

The sad fact is that only about 15 percent of American adults engage regularly in vigorous physical activity for at least 20 minutes three times a week. More than 60 percent are not regularly physically active, and 25 percent are totally sedentary (久坐的).

The Benefit of Moderate Exercise

Yet the benefits of moderate exercise are amazing. Consider how exercise helps the following: diabetes (糖尿病). The number of Americans diagnosed with diabetes has increased six fold since 1958, to a record high of ten million presented by www.hongduen.com. This alarming rise is linked to our expanding waistlines, junk food diet and inactivity. Some experts feel that the most common form of diabetes is preventable with a proper diet — and regular activity. In diabetics, the hormone insulin (荷尔蒙胰岛素) does not properly regulate glucose (葡萄糖) levels in the blood. When people exercise, the body fuels the activity by taking glucose out of their blood to use for energy.

Exercise Can Help Patients Suffering from the Following Diseases

Heart Attacks and Stroke. One of the simplest, safest, least expensive and most effective strategies for improving heart health is frequently neglected: exercise. It reduces blood pressure and can help raise the level of “good” cholesterol (胆固醇), while lowering “bad” cholesterol when combined with dietary changes.

 Remember: for every one percent reduction in blood cholesterol, the occurrence of coronary (冠状动脉的) heart disease is reduced by two percent. Moreover, people who exercise one hour per day cut their risk for stroke nearly in half, according to a study of 11,130 Harvard University alumni (男女校友).

Mental Health. When asked why she started swimming during her freshman year at Boston University, world-class endurance swimmer Julie Ridge replied, “It was a mental thing.” While sedentary people may assume that working out is about looking good,habitual exercisers like Ridge know that it is largely about feeling good. A growing body of research shows that physical activity does, indeed, exert a “feel good” effect that can work as a powerful treatment for depression.

Arthritis. Many people — including some physicians — still haven’t heard the new message that exercise can help people with arthritis now affecting nearly 43 million Americans. “We’ve come from thinking that physical fitness was impossible for people with arthritis to know that exercise is one of the best ways to manage their disease and minimize their disability,” says Marian Minor, an associate professor of Physical therapy at the University of Missouri, Columbia.

Exercise can reduce pain by keeping joints (关节) flexible and the muscles around the joints strong. A person with arthritis who has other medical conditions or a lot of pain should get a physician’s referral (建议) to a physical therapist who can design an individualized exercise program.

Cancer. Each year over a million Americans learn they have cancer — the second leading cause of death in the Unites States after heart disease. In 1996 the American Cancer Society added regular physical activity to the list of preventive measures it advocates. According to one large study of people at various levels of fitness, the least fit men died from cancer at a rate more than three times higher than that of the most fit men. And, notes Informed Decisions, the American Cancer Society’s guide to the disease, an earlier study found “the least fit women had fully16 times the cancer death rate of the most fit women.”

Scientists still don’t know the precise mechanisms by which exercise appears to exert an “anticancer” effect, but current thinking points to physical activity’s effect on the immune and endocrine (内分泌的) system.

So Choose to Move. Stop viewing exercise as a “workout” and start thinking of it as play — a welcome daily recess (暂歇) that frees your body from the confines of its workaday routines. And if you have any health concerns, you should, of course, consult a physician first.

 

1. Americans today expend more energy than their forefathers in the past.

2. In a way, some modern conveniences result in people’s obesity and related diseases.

3. Exercise is a free and available way for people to be away from illness.

4. Exercise can help increase blood pressure and lower the level of “good” cholesterol while raising “bad” cholesterol when combined with dietary changes.

5. More and more American adults take part in physical activity regularly.

6. Regular and moderate physical activity has beneficial effect on people’s health.

7. Exercise can help smokers and drinkers get rid of cigarette smoking and drinking.

8. One of the simplest, safest, least expensive and most effective strategies for improving heart health is _______.

9. If a person’s blood cholesterol is reduced one percent, his possibility of suffering from coronary heart disease will be reduced by _____________.

10. Exercise can help people with arthritis to reduce pain by _______________ and ______________________.

 

 

Part II Vocabulary and Structure (1×30=30 points)

Directions: Choose the best answer you think fit to fill in the gaps of each sentence with the items given. Please write down the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

11.Usually we wouldn't mind ______.

A)her to stay awayC)she stayed away

B)her staying awayD)she staying away

12. "She feels ______ now," said the doctor. "She will be ______ from now on."

A)good.... alright C)good.... all right

B)well.... alrightD)well.... all right

13. The Headmaster said that if they failed again, they ______ another school.

A)have had to findC)would have to find

B)had had to find D)would have had to find

14. Since you are to catch the early train tomorrow morning, we ______ now.

A)had better to leave C)might as well leave

B)must have left D)should have to leave

15. There will come a day when we will be living in cities quite unlike ______ of the present.

A)thatC)ones

B)those D)others

16. Is the matter ______ that you wouldn't even stop for just one minute to consider it?

A)of so little importance C)so little important

B)such little important D)such little importance

17. Sam's father sent him a ______ car as a birthday present.

A)red sports newC)new sports red

B)sports new redD)new red sports

18. ______ what is generally assumed, the adjustment to this kind of work is relatively easily made.

A)Contrary to C)Like

B)AsD)Rather than

19. ______ his arrival at the airport, he made a long distance call to his wife at home.

A)UponC)Since

B)As soon asD)Till

20. Jim had to be called two or three times ______ he would come to his dinner.

A)until C)in order that

B)so that D)before

21. Be sure to ______ your work at the end of the exam.

A)look over C)set aside

B)hang up D)catch sight of

22.To our great disappointment, many things did not ______ quite as satisfactory as we had expected.

A)set out C)come down

B)turn outD)result in

23.The twin brothers were so much alike that even their own parents ______ one ______ the other sometimes.

A)longed ---for C)pulled---into

B)mistook ---forD)took---over

24.Wages should be increased to ______ the rise in prices.

A)keep up withC)look into

B)come up withD)depend on

25.Xiao Li found a ______ of keys in the corridor, which turned out to be mine.

A)bunch C)few

B)seriesD)pair

26.The student who was kicked out of school for cheating at an exam has brought ______ on the whole family as well as himself.

A)reactionC)implication

B)disgraceD)benevolence

27.As the clouds drifted away, an even higher peak became______to the climbers.

A)in sightC)obvious

B)visible D)apparent

28.Please don't______themurder before our children in case they'll be frightened.

A)chatter C)mention

B)interrupt D)fortify

29.Her fear of making mistakes has caused her great difficulty in_____ with others in English.

A)organizingC)retreating

B)communicatingD)researching

30.Before she went up to give her talk, the new monitor tried to ______ her feelings of nervousness by taking a deep breath.

A)fortify C)prohibit

B)disturb D)relieve

31.The woman told the truth to her lawyer without ___________ because he was the only person she could rely on.

A)impression C)foundation

B)reservation D)combination

32.The man was severely injured in last weekend’s tragic car accident and died ________afterwards,

A)hardly C)easily

B)shortly D)mostly

33.Mr. Smith’s work in Hong Kong is just ____________. He will go back to the U.S. next month.

A)temporary C)liberal

B)rural D)conscious

34.Sophia _________ with anger when she saw her boyfriend kissing an attractive girl.

A)explodedC)relaxed

B)defeated D)collided

35.Dr. Fraser’s new book is a collection of his ____________ of the daily life of tribal people in Africa. .

A)interferences C)preventions

B)substitutions D)observations

36.Age is not so important. It's brains and knowhow that ______.

A)count C)impress

B)judge D)survive

37 .That small country has ______ independence.

A)ordered C)performed

B)exclaimed D)declared

38.The escaped murderer lives in ______ fear of being discovered.

A)eternal C)continual

B)perpetual D)prolonged

39.To carry out the plan successfully, we have to get well prepared ______.

A)in detail C)in advance

B)in turn D)in force

40.She often ______ the painful memories of her childhood.

A)ends up C)lives with

B)dwells on D)feels like

Part III Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)(1.5×20=30 points)

Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please write down the corresponding letter for each item on the Answer Sheet. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 41 to 50 are based on the following passage.

 

A) representedB) engageC) refreshingD) surroundE) curved

F) dominantG) lower H) balanced I) activityJ) zones

K) foolishL) lineM) acquires N) associated O) rash

 

Blue is the world’s favorite color. It is also the color most often ___41___ with intellect and authority. Most uniforms are blue. In Greek and Roman mythology, blue is the color of sky gods. In the Old Testament, God is ___42___ by deep blue. Blue and turquoise (青绿色)are represented by the Islamic religion. It is the ___43___ color in the mosques of the world. Blue symbolizes truth, peace and cooperation. It is the color of the flag of the United Nations and of Europe. As the coolest color of the spectrum, it is the hue most likely to have a receding effect. As in the skies and water that ___44___ us, blue is seen as a peaceful and ___45___ color. Blue light has seen to ___46___ blood pressure by calming the nervous system hence relaxing the body and mind. Blue creates large airy spaces. It makes rooms bigger. The wrong shade of blue can be uncomfortable. It can also be cold and sterile(枯燥的)unless ___47___ with warmer colors. Light and soft blue makes us feel quiet and protected from the bustle(喧闹)and ___48___ of the day. Blue bedrooms are restful. Blue bath rooms are appropriately watery. Blue ___49___ depth with greens and reds. Dark blue represents the night making us calm. Its apparently calming effect makes it the perfect tone for the quieter ___50___ of your living space.

 

Section B

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and write down the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

Passage One

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

Most shoplifters agree that the January sales offer wonderful opportunities for the hard-working thief. With the shops so crowded and the staff so busy, it does not require any extraordinary talent to help yourself to one or two little things and escape unnoticed. It is known, in the business, as “hoisting”.

But the hoisting game is not what it used to be. Even at the height of the sales, shoplifters today never know if they are being watched by one of those evil little balls that hang from the ceilings of so many department stores above the most desirable goods.

As if that was not trouble enough for them, they can now be filmed at work and obliged to attend a showing of their performance in court.

Selfridges was the first big London store to install closed-circuit video-tape equipment to watch its sales floors. In October last year the store won its first court case for shoplifting using as evidence a videotape clearly showing a couple stealing dresses. It was an important test case which encouraged other stores to install similar equipment.

When the balls, called sputniks, first make an appearance in shops it was widely believed that their only function was to frighten shoplifters. Their somewhat ridiculous appearance, the curious holes and red lights going on and off, certainly make the theory believable.

It did not take long, however, for serious shoplifters to start showing suitable respect. Soon after the equipment was in operation at Selfridges, store detective Brian Chadwick was sitting in the control room watching a woman secretly putting bottles of perfume into her bag.

“As she turned to go,” Chadwick recalled, “she suddenly looked up at the sputnik and stopped. She could not possibly have seen that the camera was trained on her because it is completely hidden, but she must have had a feeling that I was looking at her.”

“For a moment she paused, but then she returned to counter and started putting everything back. When she had finished, she opened her bag towards the camera to show it was empty and hurried out of the store.”

51. January is a good month for shoplifters because _________.

 A) they don’t need to wait for staff to serve them

 B) they don’t need any previous experience as thieves

 C) there are so many people in the store

 D) there are more goods in the shops

52. The sputniks hanging from the ceiling are intended __________.

 A) as an amusing kind of decoration

 B) to make films that can be used in evidence

 C) to frighten shoplifters by their appearance

 D) to be used as evidence against shoplifters

53. The case last October was important because __________.

 A) the store got the dresses back

 B) it repaid the investment on the equipment

 C) other shops found out about the equipment

 D) the kind of evidence supplied was accepted

54. The woman stealing perfume __________.

 A) guessed what the sputniks were forB) was frightened by its shape

 C) could see the camera filming herD) knew that the detective had seen her

55. The woman’s action before leaving the store shows that she __________.

 A) was sorry for what she had done

 B) was afraid she would be arrested

 C) decided she didn’t want what she had picked up

 D) wanted to prove she had not intended to steal anything

 

Passage Two

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

In a recent article, mathematician Aczel argues convincingly that the number of planets suitable for life is extremely large. There are about 300 billion stars in our galaxy (银河系) and possibly 100 billion galaxies in the universe. Some may quarrel with Aczel’ s claim that as many as half of these stars can be presumed to have planets, and that on average one in nine of those planets is suitable for life; but few, I think, will disagree with his conclusion that there are a very large number of planets suitable for life. The trouble starts when we come to estimate the probability that life will emerge on any of these planets. The problem is that we don’t have a good theory of the origin of life on earth. Without one, it is anybody’s guess how likely this event actually was. Out of thin air Aczel conjures(想像) the figure of 1 in a trillion for this likelihood and concludes that the probability of life existing on at least one other planet is virtually 1. Statistics are extremely powerful and important, and Aczel is a very clear and capable exponent (倡导者) of them. But statistics cannot substitute for empirical (经验主义的) knowledge about the way the universe behaves. We now have no reasonable way of arriving at robust estimates for the probability of life arising spontaneously when the conditions are right. So, until we either discover extraterrestrial (外星球的) life or understand far more about how at least one form of life — terrestrial life — first appeared, we can do little more than guess at the likelihood that life exists elsewhere in the universe. And as long as we’re merely guessing, we should not dress up our interesting speculations as mathematical certainties. 56. The term “Out of thin air” in Line 3 of Paragraph 2 can be best replaced by__________.  A) convincinglyB) confidently C) groundlessly D) suitably 57. According to the passage, what we can do about the likelihood of extraterrestrial life is to ___________.  A) find a good way of reaching a conclusion  B) construct a good theory of the origin of life  C) replace statistics with empirical knowledge  D) find whether the conditions for life are right 58. Though challenged by many people, Aczel firmly believes that ____________. A) about 1 million planets in our galaxy are suitable for life  B) it is very likely for life to exist on other planets  C) life exists in approximately 150 billion stars in our galaxy  D) there are a very large number of planets suitable for life 59. What is the author’s attitude towards assumptions based on statistical evidence?  A) positiveB) objective C) doubtful D) optimistic 60. The author’s purpose in writing this article is to ____________.  A) tell the reader not to rely only on statistics when dealing with the universe  B) encourage the reader to do some researches about the extraterrestrial life  C) tell the reader something about possible extraterrestrial life on other planets  D) show his interest in Aczel’ s research in extraterrestrial life on other planets Part IV Cloze (0.5×20=10 points)

Directions:There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C)and D). You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then write down the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

 People with good emotional health are referred to as those who have learned good ways to deal with the stress and problems that are considered as a 61 part of life.

 But, things like being laid 62 or suffering an illness or an injury can63your emotional health and result in a strong feelings of sadness, stress or 64 . “Good” change such as getting a job promotion can be just as 65 as experiencing money problem.

 Your emotions can affect your health because your body66to the way you think, feel and act, 67 is often68 the mind-body connection. Your emotional health is in disorder, when physical signs such as change in 69 and insomnia occur. Your body’s 70 system can be weakened by71emotional health, leading to more colds and other72 .

 73, you need let your doctor know about your emotions if you are suffering from stress, anxiety or depression. Being 74 with your doctor is very important, because he or she can’t tell your emotional problems by 75looking at you. The following 76are helpful to improve your emotional health: try to recognize your emotions and understand why you are having77; express your feelings in a(n)78 way; live a79life; calm your mind and body; and take care of80 .

61. 

A) common

B) usual

C) ordinary

D)normal

62.

A) down

B) on 

C) off 

D)away

63. 

A) corrupt

B) disrupt 

C) call off 

D) stop

64. 

A) anxiety

B) satisfaction

C) excitement

D)joy

65.

A) stressful

B) sad 

C) happy

D)delightful

66.

A) differs

B) responds

C) varies

D) resist

67.

A) that

B) it

C) which

D) this

68. 

A) known

B) said 

C) described

D) called

69. 

A) life

B) work

C) leisure 

D) appetite

70.

A) breath

B) recovery

C) immune

D) dynamic

71.

A) good

B) sound

C) poor

D) extreme

72.

A) emotions

B)infections

C) effects

D) signs

73.

A) However 

B) Therefore

C) Additionally

D) Moreover

74.

A) honest

B) patient

C) rational

D) logical

75.

A) just

B) instantly

C) momentarily

D) shortly

76. 

A) tips

B) readings

C) thoughts

D) ideas

77.

A) it

B) this

C) them 

D) that

78.

A) peaceful

B) considerate

C) appropriate

D) thoughtful

79.

A) happy 

B) balanced 

C) exciting

D) controlled

80. 

A) yourself

B) health

C) emotions

D) body

Part V Translation (2×5=10 points)

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and phrases in brackets. Then write the corresponding sentence on the Answer Sheet.

 

81. 面对严重的疾病,她表现出了巨大的勇气。(in the face of )

82. 据报道,昨天的车祸中有三人受伤。

83. 他在打网球时显得精力最充沛。

84. 我们有不同的方法表达同样的想法。(alternative)

85. 乡村生活意味着友善的人们、洁净的空气、亲近自然以及舒缓的生活节奏。

 

 

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