2006考研英语作文冲刺之小作文大技巧
 
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  一、 要求:考生根据所给情景写出一篇约100词(标点符号不计算在内)的应用性短文,包括私人和公务信函、备忘录、摘要、报告等。考生在答题卡2上作答。满分10分。

  注意事项:

  1)格式:称呼,结尾,署名

  2)简明扼要,清楚明确。

  3)遵照要求,内容齐全。

  4)言语得体,真心诚意。

  二、备忘录

  备忘录是一种录以备忘的公文。在公文函件中,它的等级是比较低的,主要用来提醒、督促对方,或就某个问题提出自己的意见或看法。在业务上,它一般用来补充正式文件的不足。它的内容可以分为以下几项:

  书端(Heading)

  收文人的姓名、头衔、地址(Addressee's Name, Title, Address)

  称呼(Salutation)

  事因(Subject)

  正文(Body)

  结束语(Complimentary Close)

  署名(Signature)

  写作注意事项

  1、书端部分包括发文机关的名称、地址、发文日期,有的还包括电报挂号、电传号、电话号码等。许多机关有自己特制的信笺,在写书端时,其格式和标点符号的使用与一般信件的相同。

  2、称呼从左边顶格写起,对一般机关、团体的负责人一般用 Dear Sir, 对政府官员可用Sir。

  3、正文、结束语和署名等项与一般信件的格式相同。“事因”一项目前采用得较少。

  ·名师指点:考研英语作文高分的秘密 ·06年考研英语应用文写作大全备忘录模版

  范文

  Directions: Write a memorandum of about 100 words to the student service department and ask them to fix a telephone for each dormitory.

  MEMO

  August 16, 2005

  To: The leader of student service department

  From: Li Ming

  Subject: Telephone

  Dear Sir,

  I would like to remind you that we are in want of a telephone for each dormitory. As a university student, we need to cope with the daily increasing communications with teachers, friends and people outside the campus.

  We need a telephone to get and send message, which is important for us. Though most of us have mobile phones and e-mail address, a telephone in the dormitory is after all the most convenient and cheapest tool of communication. I hope that you will pay attention to this problem and solve it as soon as possible.

  Regards. Yours,Li Ming

  三、摘要

  文章摘要是对所写文章主要内容的精炼概括。美国人称摘要为“Abstract”,而英国人则喜欢称其为“Summary”。

  通常国际刊物要求所要刊登的文章字数,包括摘要部分不超过1万字。而对文章摘要部分的字数要求则更少。因此写摘要时,应用最为简练的语言来表达论文之精华。论文摘要的重点应放在所研究的成果和结论上。

  国际会议要求的论文摘要的字数不等,一般为200字-500字。而国际刊物要求所刊登的论文摘要的字数通常是100字-200字。摘要的位置一般放在一篇文章的最前面,内容上涵盖全文,并直接点明全旨。语言上要求尽量简炼。摘要通常多采用第三人称撰写。

  科学书籍、论文和学术报告一般都附有内容摘要,这样可以节省读者的时间,使他们不必读完整个文章就能够了解它的主要内容。书籍摘要,一般放在封二或封三;论文和学术报告的摘要,一般放在正文前面。摘要应做到简明扼要,切题,能独立成文,使读者能准确地了解书籍的要义。写摘要时,最好用第三人称的完整的陈述句,文长一般不超过200个词。

  英文摘要分类

  摘要分陈述性的(Descriptive)和资料性的(Informational)两类。陈述性摘要只陈述书籍或文章的主题,不介绍内容。资料性的摘要除了介绍主题外,还应介绍文章的要点和各个要点的主要内容。它可以包括三个组成部分:

  ①点明主题,解析文章或书籍的目的或意图;

  ②介绍主要内容,使读者迅速了解文章或书籍的概貌;

  ③提出结论或建议,以供读者参考。

  英文摘要常见句型

  1)This paper deals with...

  2)This article focuses on the topics of (that, having, etc)...

  3)This eassy presents knowledge that...

  4)This thesis discusses...

  5)This thesis analyzes...

  6)This paper provides an overview of...

  7)This paper elaborates on ...

  8)This article gives an overview of...

  9)This article compares...and summarizes key findings.

  10)This paper includes discussions concerning...

  11)This paper presents up to date information on...

  12)This article covers the role of chemicals in...

  13)This paper addresses important topics including...

  14)This paper touches upon...

  15)This paper strongly emphasizes...

  16)This eassy represents the preceedings of ...

  17)This article not only describes...but also suggests...

  18)This paper considers...

  19)This paper provides a method of ...

  20)This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze...

  摘要题型写作要点:

  ① 动笔之前,考生一定要认真仔细地阅读所给原文,弄懂原文大意,掌握原文要点。

  ② 摘要的长度一般是原文的四分之一或五分之一,考试时应遵守规定的字数限制。

  ③ 在做摘要时考生切忌照搬原文。

  ④ 摘要应与原文的观点保持一致,并且仍按原文的逻辑顺序排列。

  ⑤ 重点反映主要观点,删除细节。

  ⑥ 简化从句,用简短的语句代替冗长的语句。

  ⑦ 检查与修改时,考生应重点检查是否遗漏了原文的要点或包含了细节。

  摘要题型写作实例

   ① 试题题目

   Directions: Study the following essay carefully and write a summary in about 80 words.

  We continue to share with our remotest ancestors the most tangled and evasive attitudes about death, despite the great distance we have come in understanding some of the profound aspects of biology. We have as much distaste for talking about personal death as for thinking about it; it is an indelicacy, like talking in mixed company about venereal disease or abortion in the old days. Death on a grand scale does not bother us in the same special way: we can sit around a dinner table and discuss war, involving 60 billion volatilized human deaths, as though we were talking about bad weather; we can watch abrupt bloody death every day, in color, on films and television, without blinking back a tear. It is when the numbers of dead are very small, and very close, that we begin to think in scurrying circles. At the very center of the problem is the naked cold deadness of one’s own self, the only reality in nature of which we can have absolute certainty, and it is unmentionable, unthinkable. We may be even less willing to face the issue at first hand than our predecessors because of a secret new hope that maybe it will go away. We like to think, hiding the thought, that with all the marvelous ways in which we seem now to lead nature around by the nose, perhaps we can avoid the central problem if we just become, next year, say, a bit smarter.

   ② 原文要点:

  1. continue to have the most confused ideas of death like predecessors

  2. avoid talking about death

  ③ 参考摘要:

  People dislike talking about death because they just like their predecessors still have the vaguest ideas of the issue. They talk about death only when million upon millions of people are killed in war. When they find only very few people die each time and the death rates are almost equal, they become very anxious, thinking that next time they themselves will meet their doom. Therefore, they fear very much. However, they have a hope that when they control nature, they can avoid death.(84 words)

 

 

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